What is a garden?

A garden is a small planting area inside our house or adjacent to it, intended for the cultivation of vegetables, various medicinal and aromatic plants, and even some fruit trees.

The main objective of this type of agricultural spaces is to obtain healthy food for self-consumption throughout the year, and in some cases also for exchange with other people dedicated to horticulture.

The garden is an agroecosystem in which our edible plants interact with the soil, sunlight, water, uncultivated plants and all associated organisms, including us as farmers, who are in charge of planting, harvesting and consuming food.

Vertical orchard

As its name indicates, it is a gardening system that allows us to grow ornamental plants or food for consumption on vertical surfaces, such as walls, walls or fences.

The great advantage of vertical gardens is that it is not necessary to have land for their installation, since it is enough to have a vertical surface that receives sunlight for a few hours a day.

Orchard location

Most horticultural plants need direct sun to grow and develop properly. Others appreciate a little shade.

Creating a plan and marking on it the sun exposure we have during the day will help us better distribute our garden and place the plants in the space that best suits their needs.

In this table you will find information on which vegetables best tolerate full or partial shade. This does not mean that they do not need any sun, but that they can grow well in areas of the garden that receive few hours of solar radiation.

Full sun

Partial Shade

Shade

Garlic

Eggplant

Chard

Artichoke

Vetch

Celery

Broccoli

Dad

Cabbage

Zucchini

Cauliflower

Strawberry

Spinach

Cucumber

Lettuce

Tomato

Leek

Parsley

Radish

Land and fertilizers for planting

We must try to ensure that the soil where we are going to grow our vegetables is loose, spongy and aerated, with a good water retention capacity and that it contains all the nutrients that the vegetables will need to develop correctly.

Prepared substrate

If we look at their composition we will see that most are formulated based on a mixture of peat, coconut fiber and other organic materials as well as fertilizer. Choosing any of them is correct to begin with, since the fertilizer they contain allows us to immediately start the crop and also meets the parameters indicated above (the substrate is spongy, aerated and with good water retention).

Fertilizers suitable for a garden at home

  • Compost.
  • Earthworm humus.
  • Manures (as long as they are well composted).
  • Fertilizers with special formulations.

Nutritional requirements of vegetables

Very demanding

Moderately demanding

Undemanding

Tomato

Chard

Lettuce

Aji or Chile

Radish

Spinach

Eggplant

Beet

Parsley

Dad

Beans

Cilantro

Melon

Cauliflower

Chives or Onions

Zucchini

Broccoli

Garlic

Corn

Strawberries

Peppers

What to plant in the garden?

To decide what to plant, it is advisable to make a balance between the vegetables that we consume the most in our diet, those that grow in our climate and those that are easier to grow.

This is so that we can start to have a little savings, so we don't waste time growing something foreign to our region, but also so that starting the garden becomes easier for us.

In that sense, it is important to know the types of plants and crops to begin making our choice.

Plants types

Vegetables

It is a popular group of plants that includes vegetables, legumes and fruits or roots of some herbaceous plants.

Next, the main vegetables:

Garlic, Onion, Lettuce, Chard, Spinach, Coriander, Tomato, Carrot, Cucumber, Broccoli, Cauliflower, Strawberries, Beans, Cabbage, Collard greens, Kale, Beet, radish, Celery, Parsley, Cucumber, Eggplant.

Types of Vegetables

SHEET

ROOT

STEM

FRUIT

FLOWER

Lettuce, chard, cabbage, spinach, kale

Carrot, garlic, radish, beet, egg onion, potato

Long onion, cilantro, parsley, leek

Paprika, tomato, zucchini, cucumber, chili, beans, peas, eggplant

Broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, brucellus sprouts, European head

Aromatic

They are plants that are characterized by containing substances that generate strong aromas. Aromatic plants are easy to grow (even in pots), take up little space and are very useful in the kitchen. Some aromatic plants that we can integrate into the garden are:

Basil, lavender, mint, peppermint, lemon balm, rosemary, fennel, lemongrass, anise, among others.

Medicinal

Medicinal plants are those that can be used whole or in specific parts (leaves, flowers, fruits, bark, stems or roots) to treat diseases in people. Preventive, palliative and even curative properties for certain human ailments or diseases are attributed to these plants. Some medicinal plants that can be grown in the garden are:

mustard, calendula, aloe vera, dandelion, chamomile, parsley, lemongrass, rue, sage, insulin, etc.

Most aromatic and medicinal plants offer several benefits to the garden, they promote pollination, repel pathogenic organisms and attract allied insects.

Planting planning

Garden plans

Crop plans allow us to have a visual idea of ​​how much production we will obtain according to the space we have, how many plants we need, play with the distribution of crops according to their light and water needs and are very practical for carrying out crop rotations.

Keep a calendar/diary

Writing the organization of the month in a diary or agenda allows you to not miss that you have to start planting crops, while you are busy harvesting your other vegetables.

Use a notebook to write down garden tasks in advance, it will help you organize and have an overview of the garden.

What you should write down in your diary:

  • Sowing, transplanting and harvesting calendar.
  • List of association of plants, vegetables, medicinal and aromatic
  • Irrigation log
  • Pests or diseases found.

Vegetables

Distance between rows (cm)

Distance between plants (cm)

Vegetative cycle

(days)

Sowing type

Sowing for 2 people

How often to sow

Chard

twenty

twenty

Four. Five

Plant

2

15 days

Chili pepper

35

35

180-190

Plant

1

90 days

Garlic

10

10

150

seed

5

45 days

Vetch

30

30

70-90

seed

1

30 days

Onion

10

10

120 -150

Plant

10-12

15 days

Cilantro

8

8

Four. Five

seed

5

15 days

Broccoli

twenty

twenty

120-150

Plant

5

20 days

Cauliflower

twenty

twenty

120-150

Plant

5

20 days

Spinach

10

10

80-90

Plant

2

30 days

lettuce

twenty

twenty

Four. Five

direct

4

15 days

dad

30

30

90-120

seed

40

30 days

cucumber

30

30

120-150

Plant

4

30 days

peppers

30

30

80-100

Plant

2

15 days

Radish

10

10

30

Plant

30

10 days

Beet

18

18

75

Plant

5

15 days

Cabbage

35

35

60-90

Plant

3

15 days

tomato

25

25

80-90

Plant

2

30 days

carrot

8

8

80-120

seed

row

30 days

Zucchini

100

100

120

Plant

1

30 days

Bean

7

60

55-60

seed

1

10 days

Note: leafy vegetables can be consumed after day 10 of sowing, and there is no need to remove the entire plant, only the leaves that you want to consume are taken, in the same way as cilantro, spring onion, and chives.

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